Ansi character set and equivalent unicode and html characters, ansi

Character sets

The ANSI set of 217 characters, also known as Windows-1252, was the standard for the core fonts supplied with US versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows 95 and Windows NT 4. During the lifetime of those two products, Microsoft added the euro currency symbol bringing the number of characters to 218, and introduced a new core set of Pan-European fonts containing the WGL4 (Windows Glyph List 4) character set, with 652 characters.

If you use an old, non-Unicode version of Windows that was designed for a non-Latin alphabet such as Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew or Thai to view a document that has been typed using the ANSI character set, then characters from these languages may replace some of those in the 128–255 range; this problem has mostly been resolved now that Unicode is widely used, because it provides a unique numeric identifier for each character. There were similar problems when transferring ANSI documents to DOS or Macintosh computers, because DOS and MacRoman arrange characters differently in the 128–255 range.

ANSI characters 32 to 127 correspond to those in the 7-bit ASCII character set, which forms the Basic Latin Unicode character range. Characters 160–255 correspond to those in the Latin-1 Supplement Unicode character range. Positions 128–159 in Latin-1 Supplement are reserved for controls, but most of them are used for printable characters in ANSI; the Unicode equivalents are noted in the table below. Entries in the “Entity” column are character entity references that can be used in HTML and should be interpreted correctly by Web browsers that support HTML 4.0.

The characters that appear in the first column of the following table are generated from Unicode numeric character references, and so they should appear correctly in any Web browser that supports Unicode and that has suitable fonts available, regardless of the operating system.

Latin capital letter A

Latin capital letter B

Latin capital letter C

Latin capital letter D

Latin capital letter E

Latin capital letter F

Latin capital letter G

Latin capital letter H

Latin capital letter I

Latin capital letter J

Latin capital letter K

Latin capital letter L

Latin capital letter M

Latin capital letter N

Latin capital letter O

Latin capital letter P

Latin capital letter Q

Latin capital letter R

Latin capital letter S

Latin capital letter T

Latin capital letter U

Latin capital letter V

Latin capital letter W

Latin capital letter X

Latin capital letter Y

Latin capital letter Z

left square bracket

right square bracket

Latin small letter a

Latin small letter b

Latin small letter c

Latin small letter d

Latin small letter e

Latin small letter f

Latin small letter g

Latin small letter h

Latin small letter i

Latin small letter j

Latin small letter k

Latin small letter l

Latin small letter m

Latin small letter n

Latin small letter o

Latin small letter p

Latin small letter q

Latin small letter r

Latin small letter s

Latin small letter t

Latin small letter u

Latin small letter v

Latin small letter w

Latin small letter x

Latin small letter y

Latin small letter z

left curly bracket

right curly bracket

single low-9 quotation mark

Latin small letter f with hook

double low-9 quotation mark

modifier letter circumflex accent

Spacing Modifier Letters

Latin capital letter S with caron

single left-pointing angle quotation mark

Latin capital ligature OE

Latin capital letter Z with caron

left single quotation mark

right single quotation mark

left double quotation mark

right double quotation mark

Spacing Modifier Letters

trade mark sign

Latin small letter s with caron

single right-pointing angle quotation mark

Latin small ligature oe

Latin small letter z with caron

Latin capital letter Y with diaeresis

inverted exclamation mark

feminine ordinal indicator

left-pointing double angle quotation mark

masculine ordinal indicator

right-pointing double angle quotation mark

vulgar fraction one quarter

vulgar fraction one half

vulgar fraction three quarters

inverted question mark

Latin capital letter A with grave

Latin capital letter A with acute

Latin capital letter A with circumflex

Latin capital letter A with tilde

Latin capital letter A with diaeresis

Latin capital letter A with ring above

Latin capital letter AE

Latin capital letter C with cedilla

Latin capital letter E with grave

Latin capital letter E with acute

Latin capital letter E with circumflex

Latin capital letter E with diaeresis

Latin capital letter I with grave

Latin capital letter I with acute

Latin capital letter I with circumflex

Latin capital letter I with diaeresis

Latin capital letter Eth

Latin capital letter N with tilde

Latin capital letter O with grave

Latin capital letter O with acute

Latin capital letter O with circumflex

Latin capital letter O with tilde

Latin capital letter O with diaeresis

Latin capital letter O with stroke

Latin capital letter U with grave

Latin capital letter U with acute

Latin capital letter U with circumflex

Latin capital letter U with diaeresis

Latin capital letter Y with acute

Latin capital letter Thorn

Latin small letter sharp s

Latin small letter a with grave

Latin small letter a with acute

Latin small letter a with circumflex

Latin small letter a with tilde

Latin small letter a with diaeresis

Latin small letter a with ring above

Latin small letter ae

Latin small letter c with cedilla

Latin small letter e with grave

Latin small letter e with acute

Latin small letter e with circumflex

Latin small letter e with diaeresis

Latin small letter i with grave

Latin small letter i with acute

Latin small letter i with circumflex

Latin small letter i with diaeresis

Latin small letter eth

Latin small letter n with tilde

Latin small letter o with grave

Latin small letter o with acute

Latin small letter o with circumflex

Latin small letter o with tilde

Latin small letter o with diaeresis

Latin small letter o with stroke

Latin small letter u with grave

Latin small letter u with acute

Latin small letter with circumflex

Latin small letter u with diaeresis

Latin small letter y with acute

Latin small letter thorn

Latin small letter y with diaeresis

If you use old, pre-Unicode Arabic, Greek, Hebrew, Russian or Thai versions of Microsoft Windows to view a file that uses Latin script and includes accented characters, then the accented characters may be replaced or omitted. For example:

This happens because the characters for these non-Latin scripts are coded to the same numbers as the accented Latin characters in the ANSI character set; this problem has largely been resolved now that Unicode has become widely used, because it provides a unique numeric identifier for each character.

Copyright © 1999–2012 Alan Wood

Created 15th March 1999 – Last modified 22nd November 2012

Fleet management, asset tracking & workforce solutions - agilis systems, agilisin

GPS Fleet Tracking Made Simple

Simplify the Complicated – it’s our core value. We apply that value to our business and our GPS fleet tracking solutions. We deliver key features for businesses and avoid feature bloat.

We’re the leader in GPS tracking solutions for small and mid-size fleets. We operate multiple brands and capture millions of vehicle and asset locations each day. More than 15,000 businesses trust us to monitor and track their fleets.

GPS Fleet Management Solutions Perfect for Small Fleets

Agilis' GPS fleet solutions empower small and mid-sized businesses with the information and tools they need to reduce costs, improve safety and boost productivity. Our solutions resonate with our customers, and our business is exploding.

Our Industry Leading Brands:

Decolgen tablet review, decolgen


Decolgen tablet is known in my country as a medicine or tablet that we can take when we have cold or flu. Actually, this brand already known in the market since long time ago. People who don’t want to go to a doctor normally will try to get Decolgen tablet when they feel that they have cold or flu. Since you can buy Decolgen tablet from the drug store without prescription from your doctor, people can get it easily. Even sometimes, we can also buy or get Decolgen tablet from the small store near the place where we are living. They mostly have small stock of Decolgen tablet to sell to the

people that need to buy Decolgen Tablet.

So people normally use Decolgen tablet to give special treatment or to cure their headache, running nose or fever. And I think in some other countries, they also have Decolgen tablet in the market just like in my own country. I am not sure if they also can get it easily from the store or pharmacy store. I guess it will not be lots different since they are coming from the same brand and company. So they should have same product as well even they are distributing in another countries.

In my country, we can buy Decolgen tablet for one sachet which will contains of six tablet.

inside one sachet or package. The price for each package will not be expensive. That’s why many people are using this brand as their medicine or tablet when they have cold.

But of course it will be different in each country. I don’t know how they sell this Decolgen Tablet products in another country. But I guess, there will be the same ingredients inside each tablet of Decolgen even they are selling in another market in other countries.

Since this is Decolgen tablet, I don’t think that you an give the tablet to a small kids. Especially because the size of each tablet normally is quite big. I don’t think a small kid

can swallow one tablet of Decolgen. I think if you need Decolgen for small kids, you can try to find Decolgen syrup. Sometimes those drug store sell this kind of product. But it will not be as easy as Decolgen tablet if you want to find it. Mostly you will find it in the drug store or pharmacy stores.

I am also using Decolgen tablet when I have a little flu or fever. It is really effective product and it is not expensive to get this decolgen. And since my body react good with this tablet, I don’t think I want to buy another product if I have a fever. Just try to get Decolgen Tablet nearby.

Lactose intolerance symptoms, causes, treatments, tests, lactus

Digestive Disorders Health Center

Lactose Intolerance Guide

Lactose intolerance means the body cannot easily digest lactose, a type of natural sugar found in milk and dairy products. This is not the same thing as a food allergy to milk.

When lactose moves through the large intestine (colon ) without being properly digested, it can cause uncomfortable symptoms such as gas, belly pain, and bloating. Some people who have lactose intolerance cannot digest any milk products. Others can eat or drink small amounts of milk products or certain types of milk products without problems.

Lactose intolerance is common in adults. It occurs more often in Native Americans and people of Asian, African, and South American descent than among people of European descent.

A big challenge for people who are lactose-intolerant is learning how to eat to avoid discomfort and to get enough calcium for healthy bones .

Lactose intolerance occurs when the small intestine does not make enough of an enzyme called lactase. Your body needs lactase to break down, or digest, lactose.

Lactose intolerance most commonly runs in families, and symptoms usually develop during the teen or adult years. Most people with this type of lactose intolerance can eat some milk or dairy products without problems.

Sometimes the small intestine stops making lactase after a short-term illness such as the stomach flu or as part of a lifelong disease such as cystic fibrosis. Or the small intestine sometimes stops making lactase after surgery to remove a part of the small intestine. In these cases, the problem can be either permanent or temporary.

In rare cases, newborns are lactose-intolerant. A person born with lactose intolerance cannot eat or drink anything with lactose.

Some premature babies have temporary lactose intolerance because they are not yet able to make lactase. After a baby begins to make lactase, the condition typically goes away.

Symptoms of lactose intolerance can be mild to severe, depending on how much lactase your body makes. Symptoms usually begin 30 minutes to 2 hours after you eat or drink milk products. If you have lactose intolerance, your symptoms may include:

In this article

High-temperature superconductors, esolut

Limited Liability Company "Engineering Solutions" is a small innovative company created with OmSU them. F. M. Dostoevsky (in accordance with the Federal Law № 217 of 02.08.2009)

Our company is engaged in development and production of elemental base superconducting nano-and microelectronics - the basis for the production of high-and low-voltage superconductor materials and devices, as well as thin-film superconducting quantum interference magnetic field sensors, filters and other bolometers.

The main activities of the company "Engineering Solutions" are:

production of superconductor products

scientific research and experimental development on natural sciences and engineering

production of ceramic products, except those used in construction

production of machines and equipment for special purposes

production of other electrical

production of electricity and radioelements, electronic devices

repair of electrical household goods

advising on hardware computing

software development and consulting in this field

Through the use of unique technologies we get products that have high quality, reliability, durability and relative cheapness.

Projects supported by our company:

- The Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in the scientific and technical sphere

- Omsk regional fund of support and development of small business

- Ministry of Economy of Omsk Region

Engineering solutions, LLC, Russia, Omsk, 644077, st. Mira, 55, bldg. 2

Ph: +7 (3812) 49-90-98

e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Conversion needed im confused - thyroid disease general discussion forum - thyroid boards, cynocuatr

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marshlakemom 16 Feb 2012

Can somebody please tell me how much Synthroid I'm taking. I was on 137 mg and ended up feeling sick while travelling and had to go across border to get an increase in my synthroid as my blood work showed 7.74 tsh (normal 4-5) and I bought 150 mcg. I'm feeling even worse and think I made a huge mistake because I just noticed what I bought was in milligrams and not micrograms and have been on it for a month.

So what it appears to me is that I've gone from 137 mg to .15 mg if I do the conversion right.

If this is so, then I've put myself into an extreme hypo state, terrible brain fog, confusion, shakes, blurry vision, emotional, cannot sleep at all, etc. etc.

Please, can somebody help me here.

I don't see my doctor at home for another 3 months.

Like This


joplin1975 16 Feb 2012

Unless I'm totally and completely confused, I think it's the other way around. One milligram is 1000x more than one microgram. See: http://www. convertun. m/from/ug/to/mg

So if you were on 137 mcgs, then you went from .137mgs to 150mgs, which is a huge, huge increase.

I think you might have put yourself in an extreme HYPER state. please be very careful. that could be dangerous.

Like This


marshlakemom 16 Feb 2012

So I was on 0.137 mg of synthroid and upped to 150 mcg. does this mean that I'm now taking 0.15 mg. and therefore went from my hypo state to hyper. sorry I'm just so confused, can hardly think.

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Octavia 16 Feb 2012

You went from .137 mg to .150 mg. which is the same as 137 mcg to 150 mcg. It's a small increase - the smallest increase that can be made. I recently went down. from 150 mcg to 137 mcg. a small decrease.

If you were hypo on the 137, but now you're hyper on 150, you may need to do alternating days of each one, since there's no in-between option. Can you call your doctor's office for advice on this? Edited by Octavia, 16 February 2012 - 03:57 PM.

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joplin1975 16 Feb 2012

You went from .137 mg to .150 mg. which is the same as 137 mcg to 150 mcg. It's a small increase - the smallest increase that can be made. I recently went down. from 150 mcg to 137 mcg. a small decrease.

If you were hypo on the 137, but now you're hyper on 150, you may need to do alternating days of each one, since there's no in-between option. Can you call your doctor's office for advice on this?

Wait, but did she? If she bought .150mg that would make sense, but she was saying she bought 150mg (hence my confusion)? I didn't think they would make that dose.

Like This


marshlakemom 16 Feb 2012

No I went from 0.137 mg to 150 mcg

I just got my blood results as we speak emailed to me. this is what I've been told:

I have gone from the following readings in January to :

TSH 7.74 to 12.55 (norm 0.450-4.5) T4 10.0 to 7.3 (norms 4.5-12.0) T3 Uptake 30 to 36 (norm 24.39) Free Thyroid index 3.0 to 2.6 Norm 1.2-4.9

To me this indicates Hypo, but I feel so Hyper

I'm so upset and confused:

Like This


joplin1975 16 Feb 2012

No I went from 0.137 mg to 150 mcg

Ok, just so we're on the same page, mg = milligram and mcg - microgram.

So, according to you, you went from 137mcg to 150mg.

Like This


marshlakemom 16 Feb 2012

Franklin international small cap growth fund class a, finax

Franklin International Small Cap Growth Fund Class A

Certain information included herein is derived by Morningstar in part from MSCI’s Index Constituents (the “Index Data”). However, MSCI has not reviewed any information contained herein and does not endorse or express any opinion such information or analysis. Neither MSCI nor any third party involved in or related to the computing or compiling of the Index Data makes any express or implied warranties, representations or guarantees concerning the Index Data or any information or data derived therefrom, and in no event will MSCI or any third party have any liability for any direct, indirect, special, punitive, consequential or any other damages (including lost profits) relating to any use of this information. None of the Index Data is intended to constitute investment advice or a recommendation to make (or refrain from making) any kind of investment decision and may not be relied on as such. All Index Data and any information derived therefrom is for your internal use only and may not be further redistributed or used to create any financial instruments or products or indices.

We value your feedback. Let us know what you think.

Brodix brodix aluminum blocks, brondix

BRODIX Aluminum Blocks

Small Block BRODIX® Blocks

The BRODIX 8B 1000 aluminum block has conquered the late model and sprint car markets. The strength and durability of this block is unmatched by any competitors in the industry. The BRODIX blocks are 100% CNC machined in-house and offer many deck heights, lightening programs, cam bearings, and main cap options.

Big Block BRODIX® Blocks

The big block aluminum block is truly a masterpiece; the fit and finish is equaled by none! A-356 virgin aluminum is used to assure maximum potential for strength and repairability. 1/4″ registers position the cast iron sleeves. The sleeves may be bored to 4.600. The 8B 2000 block may be ordered with many different roller cam bearing sizes. Splayed billet main caps are made of 1044 steel and are coated with black oxide. The BRODIX 8B 2000 block is truly a force to be reckoned with!

4.500 Bore Spacing Aluminum Small Block BRODIX® Block

The only way to describe the BRODIX 8B 1200 4.500 bore spacing block is big and efficient. The standard bore size of this block is 4.180, but it may be bored to 4.250. The larger bore size increases the efficiency of this block with 500 cubic inch engines. Some of the features available include roller cam bearings (50-55 mm). 391 raised cam, 350 or 400 mains, and your choice of .843-.937 lifter bore housings. The maximum deck height of 9.625 will allow the engine builder plenty of room for a larger stroke and rod combination. BRODIX has definitely taken the small block market to the next step with this aluminum block.

5.0 Bore Spacing BRODIX® Aluminum Blocks

With the introduction of the 8B 5000™ series aluminum block, BRODIX has taken the 5.0 bore spacing market to the next level. The 8B 5000 combines the size and durability of a 5.0 bore spacing block with the convenience and availability of its 4.840 bore spacing counterpart. These blocks are 100% CNC machined and employ the same technology that has made BRODIX the undisputed leader in aluminum block development.

About carca, carca


We are a small group of volunteers dedicated to the training and use of domestic cats in emergency avalanche rescue procedures.

We feel that with proper training, cats can be just as effective – and in some cases, more effective – than dogs, and certainly more effective than traditional probe line techniques.

Please visit again soon as we add more information about this revolutionary avalanche rescue development.

Steve Ruskay

In 2005 Steve moved to a Fernie and became a ski patroller, eventually becoming involved with avalanche forecasting and search and rescue. It was in this role that he became increasingly frustrated by the difficulties faced by both the traditional techniques. The avalanche beacon by far offered a skier the greatest chance to be rescued, but that would only work for those who were smart enough to wear one. Probe lines were slow and required a large number of people to offer even a slim chance of finding a buried victim. Canine searches had proven to be able to find a person quickly enough, but dogs take many years to train and are costly and problematic to maintain in sufficient quantities to be truly effective. Driven by his own avalanche experience and love of cats, Steve worked for several years to convince other patrollers that an avalanche rescue cat program may be possible. By 2008, words finally became action as Steve had convinced a small group of visionary ski patrollers begin the first CARCA training session. The initial euphoria was short-lived however, as after months of frustration, ridicule and many hundreds of small lacerations, all but Steve have given up.

Presently, things have improved dramatically. Steve and Tim have recently been successful in rescuing a live avalanche victim on their first operation together. Hoping to build on the momentum generated by this historic event, Steve hopes to expand the CARCA program to the point where every ski resort is equipped with a CARCA trained cats and handler team.

Like Us Now Or We'll Send the Cats After You.

Common and rare side effects for delta-tritex topical, delta-tritex

Side Effects

List Delta-Tritex topical side effects by likelihood and severity.

The following side effects are associated with Delta-Tritex topical:

Common side effects of Delta-Tritex topical:

Infrequent side effects of Delta-Tritex topical:

Inflammation of a Hair Follicle Severe

Large Purple or Brown Skin Blotches Severe

Skin Infection Severe

Thin Fragile Skin Severe

Itching Less Severe

Small Red Skin Lesions caused by Dilated Blood Vessels Less Severe

Stinging of Skin Less Severe

Rare side effects of Delta-Tritex topical:

Decreased Pigmentation of Skin Severe

Hives Severe

Insufficiency of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland Severe

Skin Stretch Marks Severe

Skin Ulcer Severe

A Breaking Out of the Skin Resembling Acne Less Severe

Acne Less Severe

Contact Dermatitis Less Severe

Cushing's Syndrome Less Severe

Dry Skin Less Severe

Excessive Hairiness Less Severe

Hair Loss Less Severe

High Blood Sugar Less Severe

Increased Feeling of the Skin Less Severe

Redness of Skin Less Severe

Skin Discoloration Less Severe

Skin Irritation Less Severe

Skin Irritation or Rash around the Mouth or Lips Less Severe

Small Skin Blister Less Severe

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Free wifi is also provided in the rooms - review of the lamuna, lamuna

FCatC (7 reviews)

London, United Kingdom

The Lamuna is slightly away from the hubbub of central Kata which is a 10-15 minute walk or short taxi ride away. The staff are very friendly, welcoming and helpful.

The rooms are essentially small apartments with a living area, bedroom and bathroom. They are nice and spacious and are clean and relatively modern barring some odd furniture selections. The air-con – which is a necessity in Thailand – is very good. Free WiFi is also provided in the rooms. The shower “cubicle” could do with having a curtain as it is not a wet room and when having a shower the wooden floor gets soaked which may become a hygiene issue in future. Overall the rooms/apartments are very comfortable.

We had a room which was directly on the pool with our own small balcony and a kitchenette. The pool is nice but quite cold as it doesn’t get much sunlight due to the apartment buildings on each side keeping it in the shade. However, it is very pleasant to relax by the pool of an evening as it is very quiet. Ambient music is played in the pool area which is ok at first but it can become a bit intrusive once the novelty wears off and should really be turned off or turned down (which it was on our last day).

Breakfast is merely ok. If you need something to keep you going in the morning then it will probably suffice, however if you are more discerning and want to really enjoy breakfast it is probably better to find somewhere on the road into Kata or in Kata itself.

If you're after something a bit different in a peaceful and comfortable environment then the Lamuna will do fine.

Decorating with fondant recipes and cooking food network, fundan

Decorating with Fondant

Tools: Fondant Tips

Rolled fondant is versatile. It can be tinted, flavored, modeled, formed, twisted, imprinted, and shaped into numerous of decorative pieces.

Before applying fondant, a "sticky" surface should be applied to the cake which will help the fondant adhere to it. Many spread a thin layer of buttercream before laying out the fondant.

When using rolled fondant to make decorations from, roll it to 1/4-inch thick. Either place them flat on greased (use shortening) wax paper or over forms to dry for 24 to 36 hours. Use royal icing to adhere fondant pieces to a rolled fondant iced cake and for the fine decorating commonly used on wedding cakes.

The cake to be covered with rolled fondant must be cooled completely, preferably 24 hours, covered. This will tighten the crumbs and make the cake more solid.

How far ahead you cover your cake with fondant will depend on the type of cake, filling, icing, etc. you use. With a basic butter cake, the fondant covering should be done no more than 2 to 3 days in advance of decorating and serving. A cake only remains fresh that long anyway and because fondant is sugar based, it's also how long it can stand without breaking down from the moisture in the cake. If you're using a layer cake and/or perishable fillings or icings, then you need to do everything just a day or two before the event.

Fondant dries quickly, so while working with it, always keep excess well-wrapped in plastic, as well as the parts on the cake you are not working on.

Once wrapped, unrolled fondant keeps for 1 to 2 months at room temperature. Do not refrigerate or freeze. If it gets too hard, put it in the microwave for a few seconds to soften; it will be easier to knead.

To smooth out the fondant once it is put on the cake, use cornstarch on your hands to smooth out the fondant.

If tiny cracks appear in the surface of the fondant, knead it a little - the warmth from the kneading or pressure from the rolling pin will make it smooth and satiny. Do not use water to smooth out cracks - water dissolves fondant as it is mostly sugar. Instead, use a bit of shortening on your fingertips to repair small tears.

Cracking can also be caused if your fondant is rolled too thick. Fondant is heavy and if not rolled thin enough (1/4-inch thick is usually best) the excess can pull the fondant from the top of the cake causing it to crack.

To cover a crack, try rubbing a little of the same Fondant over the crack in a circular motion, then using a smother or your hands to rub it in.

If fondant pleats at the bottom, gently unpleat and smooth out with the palms of your hands. With the palms of your hands, rub slightly up on sides to form an even top edge.

Try to work with fondant in a cool room and on a cool surface. A warm room may make the fondant too soft and difficult to work with.

Luster dust gives colors a high sheen metallic-like finish. It can be used either alone or mixed with similar colored matte dusts to create a lustrous sheen, without lightening the color. They can also be used on gum paste, royal icing or any frosting recipe that dries hard and is firm to the touch. It is non toxic.

Luster dusts can be incorporated into buttercreams to add shimmer cake decorations.

When using luster dust, use an airbrush, blush brush or a small artist paintbrush to apply.

Because luster dust is not water soluble, never mix them together to make paint colors. Instead, use white spirits like vodka, gin, clear vanilla extract or lemon extract - the dust will absorb into these liquids and result in a more intense color. They also dry faster.

Use a bowl, mix a small amount of the dusting powder with a clear spirit.

Luster dust comes in small, 2-gram tubs. Carefully open the cap and, without breathing, put about 1/4 teaspoon into a very small cup.

Add a few drops of vodka, lemon extract or clear vanilla extract. Use a small clean paintbrush to mix the liquid with the dust. Proceed to paint and decorate.

More Recipes and Ideas

Importance of timelines for betanex, betanal, and betanex-betanal combinations, betanex


Alan Dexter. Galen Schroeder, and Roger Weinlaeder Extension Sugarbeet Weed Control Specialist, Sugarbeet Research Associate, and Former Graduate Student in NDSU Agronomy Department, respectively

Weed control and sugarbeet injury from Betanex and Betanal is greatly influenced by the size of the sugarbeets and weeds. Small sugarbeets and small weeds are more susceptible than large sugarbeets and weeds. Thus, Betanex and Betanal should be applied when the sugarbeets are large enough to be tolerant and the weeds are small enough to be susceptible. Often the period of time when this situation occurs is very short.

The relative susceptibility of various growth stages of sugarbeets to Betanal is given in Table 1. Sugarbeets were planted in the greenhouse on every even numbered day until 13 sets of pots were planted. When the seedlings from the latest planting reached the early cotyledonary stage, all plants were transferred to a growth chamber set at 90 F. One day later the plants were treated with 3 lb/A of Betanal. The relatively high growth chamber temperature plus the high rate of Betanal gave significant sugarbeet injury and differential injury among growth stages.

The leaf stages given in Table 1 indicated the size of the latest emerging pair of leaves. For example the early 4-leaf stage meant that the second pair of true leaves, (the third and fourth leaves) had just started to emerge. The mid 4-leaf stage meant that the third and fourth true leaves were about half expanded and the late 4-leaf stage meant that the third and fourth true leaves were more fully expanded but the fifth and sixth true leaves had not yet started to emerge.

The conditions of this experiment were selected to give significant sugarbeet injury. Field spraying with recommended rates and at lower temperatures would not be expected to cause as much injury. In this experiment the sugarbeets were killed by applications of Betanal from the cotyledon stage through the late two-leaf stage. Sugarbeets became significantly more resistant to Betanal in the mid 4-leaf stage. Betanex would be expected to give sugarbeet injury similar to Betanal.

Based on this data and field observations, Betanal and Betanex applications should be delayed until an adequate population of sugarbeets has the second pair of true leaves at least half expanded. The sugarbeets in this experiment reached the mid 4-leaf growth stage 18 days after planting. However, field planted sugarbeets would usually reach this stage about 24 to 28 days after planting. 'American Crystal Hybrid 17' sugarbeets were seeded at Fargo, ND on May 4, 1978. The growth of sugarbeets and redroot pigweed were recorded at 4 day intervals starting 26 days after planting and are reported in Table 2 .

The redroot pigweed emerged at approximately the same time or slightly later than the sugarbeets but the redroot pigweed developed more rapidly than the sugarbeets.

The plots were treated 26, 30, 34, and 37 days after planting with Betanex at 1.25 lb/A or Betanex + Nortron at 0.75 + 1.5 lb/A. The control of redroot pigweed is listed in Table 3. None of the treatments caused observable sugarbeet injury.

The redroot pigweed control from the herbicide treatments was excellent. The redroot pigweed control in this experiment was somewhat higher than the weed control generally observed from Betanex or Betanex + Nortron. However, the redroot pigweed control from Betanex dropped from 97 to only 607 as the redroot pigweed grew from the 6-leaf to the 10-leaf stage. This growth only took 4 days. Normally redroot pigweed would continue to become more resistant to Betanex as development continued. The reason for the slight increase in weed control from the mid 10 to the mid 14-leaf stage is not known. The Betanex + Nortron treatment gave better control of redroot pigweed than Betanex alone.

The results of this experiment indicated that the optimum growth stages of sugarbeets and weeds for application of Betanal and Betanex may exist for only a short time. The suggested sugarbeet stage for starting Betanex application (mid 4-leaf) occurred 26 days after planting. The large increase in redroot pigweed resistance to Betanex was observed from applications made 34 days after planting. Good redroot pigweed control from Betanex with a minimal chance of sugarbeet injury was only achieved in this experiment with applications between 26 and 34 days after planting; a period of only 8 days.

The 8 to 10 day period will vary from year to year and from location to location depending on the relative sizes of the sugarbeets and weeds. The ideal situation is large sugarbeets with small weeds since the sugarbeets will be tolerant of the herbicide and the weeds can be treated while small. Fields should be observed frequently to insure the weeds are still small when treated. A bad situation is when the weeds are becoming too large for good control and the sugarbeets are still less than the mid 4-leaf stage. In this case, the small sugarbeets will probably have to be treated and the risk of injury will have to be run. To reduce the risk of injury to small sugarbeets a) start treating late in tile afternoon preferably on a cool, cloudy day, b) be sure that the desired rate is actually being applied to the sugarbeets, and c) consider the use of split applications. Another paper in the weed control section of this book describes the results of the testing done in 1978 on split applications.

1978 Sugarbeet Research and Extension Reports. Volume 9, page 59.

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Live Demo »»» Let us help you grow your business Have you ever dreamed making your business run smoother? Do you seek extra tools to help your business respond more rapidly and efficiently in today’s world, where things move quickly? Do you feel that if you just knew how to program. you could do things better? Your dreams can dramatically improve your business results; they can open new markets for your products; but most likely, you'll be able to evaluate new perspectives, regardless of whether yours is an existing, well-oiled business, or you just started a new one.

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» Set up a free* getting-acquainted meeting with an experienced systems analyst. Our getting-acquainted meeting will be one-on-one with whoever knows the most about your organization, preferably the business owner. We will ask for background information on your company, ask questions, and focus on your immediate needs.

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